Agriculture and rural life in Iraq have gone through several changes in the past few decades. The region is characterized by high population growth, urbanization, and water scarcity, which poses a challenge to maintaining food security and production.
Iraq’s agricultural production is almost solely for the domestic market, and imports far exceed exports. Agricultural exports are minimal and have been of comparatively little value in contrast to imports. In 2016, Iraq imported $6.7 billion in food and agricultural products while exporting $129 million worth of agricultural products.